The battle that made Tauranga

A sketch of Ngai Te Rangi Maori surrendering at Te Papa, from James Cowan’s book The New Zealand Wars. Image: NZETC.

It's a little known battle from Tauranga's history – but it probably did more to shape the destiny of this city than any other engagement of the New Zealand Wars.

The Battle of Te Ranga was fought 153 years ago today, in what is now known as Pyes Pa.

It came almost two months after the better-known Battle of Gate Pa, in which local Maori successfully repulsed Crown troops in what was one of the rare defeats for the British Army during their time in New Zealand.

However, the Crown inflicted revenge weeks later when they surprised Maori who were building a new pa at Te Ranga.

Defenders were caught in the open while constructing trenches, and Crown troops led by Colonel Greer (after whom Greerton is named) launched their attack.

The British suffered few casualties as a result of the engagement – around 13 dead and 39 wounded, according to historian James Cowan. He puts the figure of the Maori dead at 120, which some modern historians believe included women and children.

Following the crushing defeat, most Maori surrendered, handing in their weapons to Crown authorities at Te Papa, just north of the modern Tauranga CBD.

This morning a ceremony was held at the battle site, attended by elected members from both Tauranga City Council and Western Bay of Plenty District Council.

Ngai Tamarawaho historian Des Tata will also be giving a lecture on the battle and its significance tonight at the Tauranga library.

“Very little of [this history] was taught at school, so we're already on the back foot with our history in Tauranga,” says Des.

“If it wasn't for the confiscations, you would not have a Tauranga today.”

The free lecture starts at 5.30pm at Tauranga City Library. Bookings are essential, so call 07 577 7177 to reserve your place.



55 Comments

Correcting maybelle,

Posted on 15-07-2017 13:02 | By R. Bell

Blood quotient is not and never has been a measure of how Maori a person is. Relationship to Iwi, hapu and whanau is the only measure. Those who choose not to register do so freely, as do those who do register. The Iwi structure we see today was largely due to government needing central bodies to negotiate with. All who register are entitled to apply for Iwi assistance for education, and other Iwi driven projects. Subsidising Maori through such as the health system reflects the social need to address lower thresholds for many common problems, diabetes, heart problems etc. They are undeniable, even for you. Robin Bell.

You can lead a horse to water...

Posted on 15-07-2017 08:46 | By maybelle

I am under no misapprehension Robin. I will say again, ther are no full-blooded Maori left, which means we are all mixed blood. I have grown up in N.Z seeing those with enough Maori blood entitled to subsidies and hand-outs. This can breed generations of laziness ,ie:(why bother when it is handed on a platter),where there are those with not enough Maori blood getting nothing of the sort, even though these people are in desperate need. That, to me is racist and discriminating. I also want a better future for ALL- on an EQUAL playing field.

maybelle, you are labouring under a misaprehention.

Posted on 13-07-2017 09:13 | By R. Bell

If Sunlive will permit, I will help you. Like morepork Peter and I wish for a better future for all, however, how that is achieved is the issue. When government budget for social spending it is wasted if the money involved is not targeted to those in need. When that spending is targeted to Maori, for some that is interpreted as Maori privilege, your phrase " some keep their hands out" sums up that attitude. Maori health, education and general well being, is improving rapidly. I know this because I have lived and witnessed it for 55y'rs without prejudice. Robin Bell.

Right on Morepork

Posted on 09-07-2017 17:44 | By maybelle

I totally agree with you. Maori in NZ have the same priviliges and opportunities as the pakeha... and more., so why does the government or anyone feel they still need more?,or is it still the few that keep their hands out because that is all they know to do? Their culture will never die, ...Peter and Robin I think you have your heads in the clouds and need to come back down to earth.

Utu

Posted on 05-07-2017 16:44 | By MISS ADVENTURE

What is not said in the item above is that about 50% of local part Maori fought with the Red Coats, after the battle at Gate Pa, the occupiers made a run for it that night. These runaways were initally chased down by the locals attached and thise they found were slaughtered. The events noted abvoe then occurred shortly after that, the 120 odd deaths were actually local upon local, in utu fashion. The surrender was to teh British so as the remainder could save themsevles from utu. Interesting how history chanegs with time.

Who is making Maori do what?

Posted on 02-07-2017 19:29 | By NZer

Robin who is making Maori do things of their own choosing? Did someone hold a gun to all Maori and make them choose to use superior Pakeha technology, or as we all know they all chose to themselves because it suits? Are you still trying to blame everything on Pakeha? Its wearing very thin mate. I dont care what choices they make personally. Thats the beauty of Multiculture not your one sideed mono culture.

NZer

Posted on 01-07-2017 17:31 | By waiknot

I always find that when someone moves their argument or the topic it's a sure sign they are lost in the discussion. Sadly this how I now see your position.

NZer, I only respond to misinformation

Posted on 01-07-2017 14:11 | By Peter Dey

NZer, you seem irritated that I have written a lot here. It is only because I am responding to a lot of false information. In his article Ryan Wood made the comment that some modern historians believed that women and children were killed at Te Ranga. Captain Sensible then repeated his accusation that historians were writing false history. Ryan Wood is a journalist. What he wrote is not evidence of anything. Captain Sensible has failed previously to provide any credible evidence that historians are writing false history. So NZer when people like Captain Sensible stop writing misinformation I will stop writing too.

Thanks for that little gem nzer, but

Posted on 01-07-2017 09:17 | By R. Bell

totally irrelevant and out of context. Definitely yet another example of your mono cultural mindset. This is not a competition, its about recognition of racial, cultural, economic and social justice for our treaty partner, Maori. If your price for those superficial improvements is total assimilation to your dominance, I think you will find the price too high, and you suffer the consequence. Robin Bell.

Maori are better off since colonisation

Posted on 30-06-2017 18:00 | By NZer

That is why they choose to live like pakeha in pakeha style housing using pakeha technological advances like cars and phones and electricity to name a few basic ones. People dont copy bad ideas Robin hence why maori all choose to live like pakeha because they know they are much better off or they would not be doing it.

FunandGames you are right to be concerned,

Posted on 30-06-2017 09:23 | By R. Bell

about social dependency. There is no question those at the bottom of the scale can become generational dependents. To a degree we in Tauranga get a false impression, dynamic society and all that. I know a number of families in less fortunate areas that have little hope of improving their lives. Moving to Tga, Auckland etc is no longer viable, nzer claims these people have also benefited by our colonisation and the subsequent alienation of land, culture, self respect, and more importantly from their family base.We are moving forward in spite of objection from nzer and his fellow "thinkers" Robin Bell.

Robin

Posted on 30-06-2017 03:47 | By NZer

If you and i have benifitted from any of this then Maori have aswel. The majority of what you talk about certainly hapened centuaries ago otherwise we would all have been at the battle of gate pa. Get over it Robin.

NZer

Posted on 29-06-2017 19:07 | By FunandGames

Yes this sort of thing has happened all over the world with one difference NZ had a treaty, a legal document. My family routes in NZ only go back to the 50s, but I am part of NZ society and the contract was between NZ govt that represents (well hopefully) all of us and Maori. Yes it's an old document, buts it's abuse does not go back that far and Maori are still suffering the ramifications of this abuse of process. One glance at the ethnic proportions of NZ social demographics paints are sad picture. My one concern is that a % of Maori and Pakiha for that matter stuck stuck at the bottom are developing a welfare dependant mentality.

After all this time, it's good to witness,

Posted on 29-06-2017 16:56 | By R. Bell

nzer finally admitting Maori were treated unfairly. Great....... but then goes on to justify it all, by condoning exploitation. Not good enough nzer. Robin Bell.

I'm guilty as charged nzer,

Posted on 29-06-2017 16:18 | By R. Bell

and I will keep harping on until you and your kind stop. It is dishonest to talk of "centuries ago" much of what happened was as recent as 50yrs ago. You and I pay because you and I have materially benefited from the blatant government theft. You attempt to play hop scotch, by simply hopping over the bits you don't like. Not gonna happen. Get used to it. Robin Bell.

Fun and games

Posted on 29-06-2017 13:53 | By NZer

Yes i agree with what you are saying. This sort of thing happened all over the world centuaries ago. It is not unique to NZ. The people that are here today did not do what happened centuaries ago but are being made responsible. Is that fair? NO. Is what happened to Maori fair? NO The world is not a fair place and people like Bell and Dey act like kids by continually harping on about it. Clearly they see easy $$$$$$.

NZer

Posted on 29-06-2017 11:46 | By FunandGames

I agree with you when you say, "Special privilege Is where one culture get something based on the race they are. It is unfair to do this to any culture. " unfortunately this has been happening for ever to the detriment of Maori ever since us white fellas arrived in NZ. It may not be in writing but Maori have been at the wrong end of negotiations etc. To put in place some systems to rectify this can only be the right thing to do. If you said some of these measures have been exploited and manipulated, sure I would agree this has happened, but all races are guilty of this. And this brings us back full circle to where the white man exploited and manipulated to there advantage all those years ago.

NZer, what about the Bastion Point protest

Posted on 28-06-2017 16:40 | By Peter Dey

NZer, in 1977, only 40 years ago, the Government refused to return Maori land, that it had acquired at Bastion Point, to Ngati Whatua, the rightful owners. After 506 days of occupation and protest by Maori, the Government was forced to accept that it was wrong and the land should be returned to Ngati Whatua, which was done. The Waitangi Tribunal is the only way that Maori can effectively deal with Pakeha dominated Government discrimination. Explain why you and the Hobson's Pledge group justify closing the Waitangi tribunal down which they want to do.

NZer, what if treating everybody the same is not fair

Posted on 28-06-2017 13:18 | By Peter Dey

NZer, I accept that it seems fair to treat everybody the same, but we have a problem when society is Pakeha dominated and Maori get treated like Pakeha, without their Maori culture being respected. If everybody is treated the same in a Pakeha dominated society then we get discrimination against Maori, as has happened in the past. Groups like Hobson's Pledge seem to want to return us to Pakeha dominated discrimination against Maori. They want to simply ignore commitments placed on us by the Treaty of Waitangi. They misinform by describing too many items as Maori privilege that are really Maori just getting a fair share of Government spending targeted in a culturally Maori way.

Race equals need equals assistance to Maori.

Posted on 28-06-2017 10:41 | By R. Bell

It is a sad indictment on our history, that exploitation in the past produced inequality in the founding races. That inequality is being addressed and we are all beneficiaries of the progress being made. With a few exceptions, like yourself nzer. who will never be happy. Times they are a changing. Robin Bell.

Special privilege

Posted on 27-06-2017 16:48 | By NZer

Is where one culture get something based on the race they are. It is unfair to do this to any culture. Both Peter and Robin are so mono culturly biased they cannot see this and will come up with all sorts of excuses to support this bias. Every New Zealander should be treated the Same. This is fair.

NZer, what are the special privileges that concern you?

Posted on 27-06-2017 15:42 | By Peter Dey

NZer, you believe it is wrong for Maori to get special privileges. Maori education, television, radio, the Waitangi Tribunal, Maori sports teams, Maori representation on councils, and Maori hospital wards are not privileges. They are either measures to prevent Government abuse of power that occurred in the past, or they are simply exercising freedom of association and recognising the reality that Maori culture exists and should be allowed to exist. If your examples of privilege for Maori are trivial, then why make an issue of it?

NZer, the Treaty of Waitangi was signed by two peoples

Posted on 27-06-2017 15:10 | By Peter Dey

NZer, as a nation we began with two peoples. They still make the two major cultures of our nation. Yes. we are multicultural, but our two major cultures are enshrined in our law in the Treaty of Waitangi Act. Pointing out that we have two major cultures does not mean that I am wearing monocultural blinkers.

Wrong Peter

Posted on 27-06-2017 14:27 | By NZer

We are a country of Multiculture, many different cultures not just 2 as you state. To give special privileges to one culture and not others is wrong. Seems like you are wearing monocultured blinkers.

The Hobson's Pledge group are not totally honest

Posted on 27-06-2017 09:36 | By Peter Dey

The Hobson's Pledge campaign is hopefully as doomed to failure as the other similar attempts, such as the 1law4all party, the colourblind NZ campaign, the books "Twisting the Treaty", and "One Treaty One Nation", and the One NZ Foundation. They have all been less than honest in order to persuade people. Hobson's greeting to Maori chiefs "he iwi tahi tatou" was not a pledge. It meant, in the idiom of the time "we are all of one mind". Hobson's pledge was in the Treaty itself, where he pledged that Maori would retain all their valued possessions for as long as they wanted. There are only a few co-governance agreements with Maori, and they apply where Maori do have genuine property claims, like the Waikato river.

Captain Sensible, your claimed Maori privileges are not genuine

Posted on 27-06-2017 09:17 | By Peter Dey

Captain Sensible, the very small list of privileges that you have claimed for Maori in the past include too many items that are not genuine privileges at all. Maori schools, universities, television, radio, seats in Parliament, the Waitangi Tribunal, and consultation on councils are not privileges. We are a country of two major cultures. It is not a privilege for Maori to exercise their culture. Pakeha who object to this are wearing mono-cultural blinkers.

Other than bad government policy, morepork,

Posted on 26-06-2017 16:14 | By R. Bell

is the bit you left out. The New Zealand governments of the 120 yrs or so after the signing of the treaty ,pursued a policy of enforced assimilation. Maori had no say, intermarriage is the superficial effect of personal preference and has no part to play. In fact it is far less prevalent than you may think.Google the young lass at Maori T.V. whose D.N.A. shows her to be 98% Maori. We have the one nation you crave. Unique, and moving on as you want. Hobsons pledge will set us back to pre Waitangi Tribunal chaos. Robin Bell.

@ R. Bell

Posted on 26-06-2017 15:00 | By morepork

Robin, I take your point that Maori "cannot assimilate and were never required to do so." It depends what you mean by "assimilate". It should not mean that Maori (or any other Ethnicity) are simply overwhelmed and suppressed by a majority. The observable fact is that for the last 150 years there HAS been "assimilation" of Maori through intermarriage and it is a very good thing for all concerned, in my opinion. No Kiwi in their right mind would want to lose Maoritanga as part of our culture and I don't think there is any danger of that. We need a nation that respects all cultures, but has primary allegiance to "ONE nation": New Zealand/Aotearoa. As for Hobson's Pledge I certainly read their mail and I find it generally logical, fair and balanced. I am not so stupid as to "buy in" to ANYTHING without thinking.

Morepork, it is clear you have bought into,

Posted on 26-06-2017 10:24 | By R. Bell

the propaganda put out by the Hobson's pledge group, and others.For someone with such high principles, that's sad. The term "we are now one people"did not appear in the treaty and is in fact in direct contrast to articles 2 and 3. We are not one people, we are two peoples one Nation. Any other interpretation requires total assimilation by people who cannot assimilate and were never required to do so other than by BAD gov't policy. The term "gravy train"is designed to create envy, and resentment, and clearly is effective with some people. There is no gravy train, only legitimate adherence to the treaty, of which you have no objection. Integrity, morepork is far more important than impossible dreams. Robin Bell.

@R.Bell

Posted on 25-06-2017 20:52 | By morepork

I see no problem with the Treaty per se. The "problems" arise when people seek to use it for furthering their own agendas. The culture and values (both Maori and Tauiwi) at the time, were much removed from those in place today, but the intention is pretty clear in the phrase "He iwi kotahi tatou", "we are one people". Saying it, doesn't make it so, of course, and the Treaty guaranteed the same rights to all parties under the Law. In practice, some very serious exploitation occurred and there were injustices which should be worked out as a basis for moving on. I believe that has been done, and, instead of pushing the Treaty to justify an ongoing "gravy train", it is time we all grew up and started working towards a proper future for our Nation and our kids. (Many people, on both sides, are now doing that.)

What's this about skin colour?

Posted on 24-06-2017 17:43 | By Papamoaner

You are all blindly tail spinning - harping on about "skin colour" The issue has got bugger all to do with skin colour. It's more to do with envy and greed, some of it on both sides, and also to do with who was here first and how some used their higher education (don't confuse that with intelligence either) to do some unfair, unbalanced, and dishonest trading. Maori had a go at it too, vide Banjo Patterson's comical poem "The maori's wool" The answer to all these issues is to sit down and talk TO each other, not AT each other, but firstly, both sides put your listening gear on and use it. Our maori content might one day be our saving grace against the whole place being sold down the drain to the yanks or China. Be careful what you wish for.

Admirable sentiments morepork, but

Posted on 24-06-2017 16:14 | By R. Bell

the only way to achieve your ideal world is to start from a position of equilibrium, as in stability. Most nations achieve that through evolution. New Zealand does not have that luxury. We achieved statehood via a treaty, that has to be honoured. To dishonour the treaty is to destroy our integrity. It's a tough one, particularly for some Pakeha. Robin Bell.

Truth Hurts

Posted on 23-06-2017 19:32 | By Number eight

Sorry for the late reply but I have just finished work...yeah I know captain a Maori who actually works and pays taxes go figure aye.Redneck has quite a few meanings,some of these are derogatory,but it also means opposed to Modern Ways.As I see you are opposed to the way modern historians interpret history,because it does not fit your agenda I guess makes you a redneck,enough said.Why captain do you continue to bring up the racial privileges rubbish,this article was about the battle of Te Ranga.Yeah Maori get privileges but as for hundreds?really . I'll play your game there captain,just name fifty if there are hundreds,than naming fifty should not be problem,otherwise just stick to the topic which was the battle of Te Ranga.

Responsibility.

Posted on 23-06-2017 14:15 | By morepork

Woman and children on both sides died during the New Zealand Wars. It is a known effect of "war" that innocent people get killed. Until we find a better way to resolve our differences than killing those we have issues with, it will go on. It is also normal for "history" to change according to the prevailing climate and the agendas Historians may have. The History I learned at school is far removed from the History modern kids are taught, but there is no way we can change the past and the best we can do is learn from it, and try not to carry grudges about it into the present. We CAN do something about the future and THAT is where the real responsibility lies for all of us. I cannot be responsible for what my ancestors did, but I can certainly be responsible for MY actions.

Captain

Posted on 23-06-2017 11:14 | By waiknot

Captain if I may be so bold as to answer for No 8. Redneck because you will not or can not appreciate that Maori have been disadvantaged precisely because of their skin colour.

@ Number eight; please explain

Posted on 23-06-2017 08:31 | By Captain Sensible

Could you explain how the term "redneck" applies to someone who is disadvantaged by their skin colour because they get ZERO race based privileges and only want equality with their maori countrypeople who get hundreds of race based privileges. So come on, Sunlive allowed you to use this term against us, so now explain please.

Captain

Posted on 22-06-2017 19:48 | By waiknot

If you were to visit the Elms, mission house where several British officers dined the night before the battle of Gate Pa and planed to dine the following night to celibate the routing of the upstart local Maori you will find the seeds of the British revenge at Pyes Pa. Oh the victory dinner after the battle of Gate Pa didn't happen if memory serves me only 1 of the original dinners returned from a battle where Maori gave the British a lesson in trench warfare. It's a shame the a British didn't learn from this before entering the First World War.

And as a postscript:

Posted on 22-06-2017 19:36 | By waiknot

Who knows what the true story is, I'm guessing somewhere in the middle of all versions.

A perspective on history

Posted on 22-06-2017 19:34 | By waiknot

To pick an unrelated topic as an example. Battle of Trafalgar. BRITISH history, Nelson beat the Spaniards. SPANISH history, Nelson beat the remnants of a Spanish fleet destroyed by a storm. DUTCH history a combined English and Dutch fleet beat the Spanish. I think the French were there as well god knows what there version is. The point is the English were the dominant partner in the victory so we all know there version of this historical event. And the same applies in NZ we all know the English version of these historical events and not the Maori.

History

Posted on 22-06-2017 17:56 | By Number eight

I have just read the article and I am struggling to find where it says Maori will take this to the Waitangi tribunal.The paranoia of some of these writers and lets be fair,its always the usual redneck suspects,is quite frankly sad.In any war there is always collateral damage and unfortunately Women and children are some of these.I don't belive that the troops deliberately set out to kill women and children that it happened is regrettable.What I would love to see being taught in our school's curriculum is the HISTORY of our country,New Zealand,Aotearoa,instead of all the other stuff they teach in history,learn about our own country first,no matter how painful it is,for either Maori or Pakeha.Again anything Maori,anything,and the usual suspects come out to play

There is no such thing as established history,

Posted on 22-06-2017 16:32 | By R. Bell

it can change at any time. New research, more detailed analysis, peer review, all adding to our knowledge. I will not do your research for you cap'n confused, but will give you this. Ngahura, wife of Te Teira ( who died at Te Ranga ) stated later that women were in great force, and took up arms and fought along side our men to defend our land. Maybe you should ask Ryan Wood who the historians are, that he refers to, might be quicker than waiting for me. Robin Bell.

@ R. Bell

Posted on 22-06-2017 13:44 | By Captain Sensible

If there is no such thing as new history, then WHY is our established history under attack from the grievance industry with their eyes set on handouts for unproven findings? So I ask again, what new evidence has come to light to suggest women and children were killed? Please name the source.

Absolute rubbish,

Posted on 22-06-2017 13:36 | By R. Bell

Kaveman. You have your battles mixed up. There is no record of the crimes you claim happening in Tauranga. In fact there were very few settlers here at that time and virtually no government presence. The British sought to continue the its rout of Waikato Maori and further its land banking policy. Get it right and you may improve your understanding. Robin Bell.

There is no such thing as new history,

Posted on 22-06-2017 12:53 | By R. Bell

only the real thing.Te Ranga was a massacre plain and simple. Maori were building a defensive Pa.They were attacked, illegally by Professional British soldiers, in violation of the English Law Act 1858.which states it is illegal for the Crown to attack its own citizens. Self defense, and defense of your land is not an offence. Chief Justice Sir William Martin 1863, "the crowns duty was to protect rangatiratanga" They failed and we all know why. Robin Bell.

Gate Pa

Posted on 22-06-2017 12:44 | By Capt_Kaveman

Was not a defeat but a stale mate due to the terrain and valley, maori escaped up the valley that night and then were pursued by the british, yes i guess children were killed if they were near the fighting but the reason this tribe were pursued is because of the killing of colonial woman and children in night raids, no way should this be a sympathy factor it happened and thats the end of it

Here we go again

Posted on 22-06-2017 10:43 | By the roofer

Here we go again. The new history written by modern historians with an agenda. Chris Finlayson may see an opportunity for a juicy payout here.

@ R. Bell

Posted on 22-06-2017 09:23 | By Captain Sensible

So....what made them say that women and children were killed? Why was this never mentioned for well over 100 years until now? Some new earth shattering evidence has been revealed...or not?! Or, failing that, just admit they made it up to suit because in today's everything-maori-is-good PC climate, ...they just can.

A major breakthrough from waiknot,

Posted on 22-06-2017 08:57 | By R. Bell

Well said. It is impossible for captain second class to understand such simple realities. The victors always write history to suit the image they wish to portray. Modern historians have no such restrictions, have better education and better research facility. History is not being re-written, it is being better understood, warts and all. Robin Bell.

I wonder....

Posted on 22-06-2017 08:30 | By Captain Sensible

I wonder what happened to all the historical witness records referring to cannibalism and murder of missionary women and children? Seems they have been "revised" by "modern historians" !

@ waiknot

Posted on 22-06-2017 08:17 | By Captain Sensible

But what is the new evidence? Did they uncover some hidden documents? Did they find some old drawings? Did they find a witness who has been silent for over 100 years? Did they find woman & children bones riddled with bullets? Or...did they just make it up to muddy the water and keep the grievance industry going?

The original

Posted on 21-06-2017 22:50 | By waiknot

Historians are the victors. And victors would never acknowledge if woman and children were slaughtered. This why modern historians often provide a new perspective.

So.........

Posted on 21-06-2017 19:01 | By groutby

........in a more "humane" way, a game of rugby is won often by having certain skills and game plan that the opposition have..the next encounter sees the previously defeated work out these strategies and win this following game. That's how it works I would have thought?...there is collateral damage in war, ( and footie games) get used to it.Sadly this recent history does appear to be continually re-written as the "need" arises ,so I guess we will be bombarded by the usual suspects claiming certain benefits from what is a significant happening in the region, but...many, many world changing things have happened since and humanity has managed to get over or at least accept them.

Hardly

Posted on 21-06-2017 18:33 | By tish

just not an English victory glorified by all the jumping up and down that accompanies the prior English losses at Gate Pa.

I agree CaptainS

Posted on 21-06-2017 16:41 | By GreertonBoy

I was just thinking that whilst reading the story.... How much will this cost us? The new history has been written perfectly, the actors are in place... perfect to now shoe-horn some more carriages for the gravy train out of us....

modern historians

Posted on 21-06-2017 16:08 | By Captain Sensible

So "modern historians" believe maori women & children were amongst the 120 killed. I am wondering what new evidence has come to light.....or is this a classic example of our history being re-written by stealth to ensure the grievance industry gravy train keeps choo chooing along.

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